Secondary and higher education

Inmost of the countries of Asia secondary education is free, but not compulsory. Despite wide variations within the region, certain common trends appear in both the primary and secondary school curriculum. Thus, the central educational authorities usu­ally prescribe the content of instruction. The general trend is to relate the Secondary and higher education curriculum to the needs of society in general and to the needs of local community in particular. Thus, in the elementa­ry school in India a local craft is the centre of interest and the most important factor in the programme. In a number of countries the secondary Secondary and higher education course either falls into two cycles of three years each or is preceded by the so-called intermediate school which prepares for secondary education. Secondary school gives precise attention to academic subjects. As a rule the basic subjects are mathematics, natural sciences, literature and history.

Further improvements in the school curriculum Secondary and higher education are felt to be necessary. This applies particularly to teaching methods, which are often too passive and bookish. Instruction is everywhere in the native language.

The children's progress through school is dependent upon an­nual examinations in at least half of the countries of Asia. Even when promotion from Secondary and higher education one grade to another is not based on an examination, there is a school leaving examination at the end of the course in all countries except Ceylon and the Philippines.

It is required that primary teachers should have a completed secondary education and professional training course in a Secondary and higher education nor­mal school. The certification requirements have been raised al­most in all countries. To a considerable extent, improvements in teacher training depend on the expansion of secondary education.

Higher education has considerably expanded since more coun­tries of Asia achieved independence. In addition to old universi­ties a Secondary and higher education number of new higher educational establishments have been opened. All in all they enroll several thousands of students. As a rule, admission to higher school is by competitive examination. In Afghanistan, Myanmar, the Chinese People's Republic, Indonesia and some other countries the students are given scholarships by the Secondary and higher education state.

Despite very different political patterns among Asian Sta­tes, the administration of education tends to be centralized in most of them. In every country either a Ministry or a Board of Education has been established.

Exercises

I. Be careful to pronounce the following correctly:

curriculum, authority, prescribe, content Secondary and higher education, community, pro­gramme, cycle, precede, intermediate, basic, mathematics, base, certificate, certification, expansion, enrol, scholarship.

II. What do you call it?

1. the ways pupils are taught; 2. the process of being taught; 3. the person who teaches; 4. a detailed inquiry into a person's knowledge; 5. the final examination at the end of schooling Secondary and higher education;

6. a group of people controlling and providing for schooling;

7. the state of making or becoming better; 8. the state of making
or becoming larger.

III. Give your explanation of the following:

1. an elementary school; 2. an intermediate school; 3. a nor­mal school; 4. a vocational school; 5. a boarding school; 6. com­pulsory education; 7. adult Secondary and higher education education; 8. free education; 9. basic subjects; 10. curriculum; 11. certification requirements; 12. leaving (final) examinations; 13. entrance examinations; 14. a competiti­ve examination; 15. a board (jury) of examiners; 16. the langua­ge of instruction.

IV. What nouns from the first list would you use with the
adjectives from the second list.

1. school, attendance, education, age Secondary and higher education, training, instruction,
course, examination, subject, curriculum, authorities, community.

2. primary, compulsory, vocational, leaving, free, extentional,
basic, educational, local.

V. Answer the following questions:

1. Who prescribes the content of instruction? 2. What is the curriculum usually related to? 3. What is the centre of interest in primary school? 4. What are the main (basic Secondary and higher education) subjects taught in secondary schools? 5. Why is it felt to be necessary to improve the existing teaching methods? 6. What is the language of instruc­tion in primary and secondary schools? 7. What does the child's progress through school depend on? 8. Is the promotion from one grade to another always based Secondary and higher education on examinations? 9. What require­ments must a prospective (would-be) teacher meet? 10. What help is given to the students by the state? 11. What administrative body is in charge of primary and secondary education? VI. Reproduce the text in detail. VII. Translate into English.

Невзирая на то, что программки обучения в Secondary and higher education разных стра­нах Азии существенно отличаются друг от друга, все они же имеют общие черты. Учебные планы и программки, обычно, предписываются особыми отделами (советами) образо­вания либо министерствами образования. В почти всех районах учебный план подчиняют потребностям местной общины. Так, в исходных школах Индии основное внимание уделяют обу­чению одному из Secondary and higher education местных ремесел.

Практически во всех странах Азии чувствуется потребность усовер­шенствовать курс обучения и сделать лучше способы преподавания. Старенькые, пассивные, способы преподавания должны быть заме­нены современными, активными формами обучения. Необходи­мо также сделать лучше контроль. Уже на данный момент в большинстве государств перевод ученика в Secondary and higher education последующий класс находится в зависимости от результатов каждогодних экзаменов. Во всех странах, не считая Цейлона и Фи­липпин, введены экзамены в конце курса обучения. Преподава­ние ведется лишь на родном языке.

Учитель исходной школы обязан иметь законченное сред­нее образование и пройти особый курс обучения сроком с два года Secondary and higher education. В неких странах Азии на данный момент увеличивают требо­вания к будущим учителям. Улучшение подготовки учителей для исходных школ находится в зависимости от удачного развития среднего образования. В большинстве государств Азии за ближайшее время существенно возросло количество средних школ и высших учебных заведений. В почти всех странах студенты получают Secondary and higher education сти­пендию.

General exercises

I. A. Translate into Russian. В. Tell the text in English.

Education in Myanmar

Primary education in Myanmar is officially compulsory. It lasts five years, and to continue onto secondary school, students must pass a comprehensive examination of basic subjects. Secondary education is divided into middle school (standards 6 - 8), and upon Secondary and higher education passing the Basic Education Standard VIII Examination, students continue onto high schools, which cover standards 9 -10. Secondary schools are usually combined, containing both middle and high schools.At the end of standard 10, students must pass the Basic Education Standard 10 Examination (matriculation exam) in order to receive their Secondary and higher education diplomas. Students who do pass the matriculation examination receive either Diploma A or Diploma B. Those with Diploma A are allowed to continue their educations at university.

High schools students choose one of two tracks upon entering high school: science or arts. All high school students take Myanmar, English, and mathematics. However Secondary and higher education, Science-specialized students also take three additional subjects: chemistry, physics and biology as part of their coursework, while arts-specialized students take geography, history and economics. These routes also determine what matriculation subject exams they are administered and what tertiary schools they can apply to.

Nearly Secondary and higher education all major and national universities in Myanmar are in Yangon Region and Mandalay Region. The Burmese higher education system is entirely state-run, and its universities and colleges are organized along their fields of studies. The country's 150 plus universities and colleges are administered by various government ministries.

Problems with education in Secondary and higher education Iraq

UNESCO reports that prior to the first Gulf War in 1991 Iraq had one of the best educational performances in the region. Primary school Gross Enrollment Rate was 100% and literacy levels were high. Since that time education has suffered as a result of war, sanctions, and instability. Since then Secondary and higher education, major problems have emerged that are hindering the system, and include: lack of resources, politicization of the educational system, uneven emigration and internal displacement of teachers and students, security threats, and corruption. Illiteracy is widespread in comparison with before, standing at 39% for the rural population. Almost 22% of Secondary and higher education the adult population in Iraq has never attended school, and a mere 9% have secondary school as highest level completed. As far as gender equity, 47% of women in Iraq are either fully or partly illiterate, as women’s education suffers from differences across regions, and especially between the North and South. In Secondary and higher education accordance with the above information, there appear to be massive challenges to tackle within the Iraqi educational system. The system was obviously one of the best in the region in the 1980s, and with the correct steps can reach those levels once again

Education in Jordan

The education system of the Secondary and higher education Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan has improved consistently since the late XX century. The role played by a good education system has been significant in the development of Jordan from a predominantly agrarian to an industrialized nation. In 2003 the share of budget dedicated to education was 6.4 percent of Secondary and higher education total government expenditure; education spending as a percentage of GDP was 13.5 percent in the same year. At 8.9 percent, Jordan has the third lowest illiteracy rate in the Arab world. The primary gross enrollment ratio has increased from 71 percent in 1994 to 98.2 percent in 2006. Transition rate to secondary school, during the same period Secondary and higher education, has increased from 63 percent to 97 percent and transition rates to higher education have varied between 79 to 85 percent of secondary school graduates. Along with these high enrollment and transition rates, Jordan has achieved a 90 percent parity in literacy and full parity in primary and secondary enrollment.

The structure of Secondary and higher education the educational system in Jordan consists of a two-year cycle of pre-school education, ten years of compulsory basic education, and two years of secondary academic or vocational education after which the students sit for a General Certificate of Secondary Education Exam—Tawjihi Secondary education, which can Secondary and higher education either be academic or vocational. Public primary education (accommodating about 70% of students) is free and compulsory. It is given in six grades, and usually begins between the ages of six and eight years. Secondary courses are given in two cycles; the first, or preparatory cycle, lasts for three years and Secondary and higher education the second, of three years' duration, leads to school certificate.

At the end of the two-year period, students sit for the general secondary examination (Tawjihi) in the appropriate branch and those who pass are awarded the Tawjihi (General Secondary Education Certificate). The academic stream qualifies students for Secondary and higher education entrance to universities, whereas the vocational or technical type qualifies for entrance to Community Colleges or universities or the job market, provided they pass the two additional subjects.The Jordanian Ministry of Education is now making it mandatory for students to be computer literate and able to apply their Secondary and higher education studies in computers to their regular studies, most especially the scientific and mathematical courses. Its educational system is of international standards and its secondary education program is accepted in world-class universities.

II. Translate into English.

Образование в Египте

Система образования в Египте отличается высочайшей степенью централизации, она разделяется на три шага Secondary and higher education: (1) Базисное образование, состоящее из исходной ступени и предварительной ступени; (2) Среднее образование; (3) Высшее образование. В согласовании с Законом о бесплатном неотклонимом образовании от 1981 года, все египтяне в возрасте от 6 до 14 лет обязаны иметь базисное образование, включающее исходную и предварительную ступени. Предстоящее образование находится в зависимости от способности учеников.

Среднее Secondary and higher education обраование в Египте представлено 3-мя типами, это - общее, проф и техническое. Техническое образование, приобретаемое в рамках трёхгодичной и пятилетней программки, дают школы, специализирующиеся в трёх различных областях: индустрия, коммерция и сельское хозяйство. Курс общего среднего образования рассчитан на три года и включает естественные и гуманитарные предметы: арабский и английскийязыки Secondary and higher education, 2-ой зарубежный язык (германский, французский, испанский либо итальянский), химия, физика, биология, география, история, философия. На втором и 3-ем году обучения вводится специализация: естественные науки, или гуманитарные науки, или математические науки. Кроме светского образования в Египте есть и система религиозного образования Азхар. Религиозная система образования находится в ведении Высшего совета института Secondary and higher education Аль-Азхар. Сам Совет формально является независящим от Министерства образования, но находится под наблюдением премьер-министра Египта. Школы Азхар именуются институтами и включают изначальное, подготовительное и среднее образование. Во всех школах на всех шагах изучают нерелигиозные предметы, хотя и не так интенсивно, как в муниципальных школах. Все же базу расписания Secondary and higher education составляют религиозные предметы. Все ученики мусульмане, мальчишки и девченки обучаются раздельно. Школы Азхар всераспространены по всей стране, в особенности в сельской местности. Выпускники таких школ могут продолжить обучение исключительно в Институте Аль-Азхар. Сначала 2000-х на школы Азхар приходилось наименее 4% от полного количества учащихся.

В Египте имеются как Secondary and higher education личные, так и муниципальные высшие учебные заведения. Государственное высшее образование в Египте бесплатное, студенты платят только регистрационный взнос. Личное образование обходится дороже. Главные институты: Каирский институт (100 000 студентов), Александрийский институт, Институт Айн-Шамс, Институт Аль-Азхар – наистарейшем институт Египта с историей, насчитывающей выше 1000 лет.

Образование в Судане

Образование в Судане беслатное Secondary and higher education и непременное для деток в возрасте от 6 до 13 лет. Primary education consists of eight years, followed by three years of secondary education. Изначальное образование продолжается восемь лет, а потом следуют три года среднего образования. The former educational ladder 6 + 3 + 3 was changed in 1990.The primary language at all levels Secondary and higher education is Arabic. Основной язык преподавания всех уровнях образования - арабский. Schools are concentrated in urban areas; many in the South and West have been damaged or destroyed by years of civil war. In 2001 the World Bank estimated that primary enrollment was 46 percent of eligible pupils and 21 percent of secondary students. По данным Secondary and higher education Глобального банка, размещенным в 2001 году, в школах, дающих изначальное образование, все же, было записанно 46 процентов малышей соответственного возраста, а в средних школах только 21 процент от общего числа учеников. Enrollment varies widely, falling below 20 percent in some provinces.Sudan has 19 universities; instruction is primarily in Arabic.According to World Bank Secondary and higher education estimates for 2002, the literacy rate in adults aged 15 years and older was 60 percent. По оценкам Глобального банка за 2002 год, уровень грамотности посреди молодежи в возрасте 15 лет и старше составляет 60 процентов. In 2000 the comparable figure was almost 58 percent (69 percent for males, 46 percent for females); youth illiteracy (ages 15–24) was estimated at 23 percent Secondary and higher education. [ 1 ] В 2000 году аналогичный показатель составил практически 58 процентов, что свидетельствует о положительной тенденции. Education at the secondary and university levels has been seriously hampered by the requirement that most males perform military service before completing their education. [ 1 ] Обучению в средних и высших учебных заведениях серьезно препятствует тот факт, что Secondary and higher education большая часть парней обязаны прерывать свое образование для того, чтоб нести военную службу. В Судане 19 институтов, преподавание в каких в главном ведется на арабском языке, равномерно вытесняя британский, наистарейшем из которых находится в Хартуме.

Осознавая необходимость проведения конструктивных реформ, в 1991 году правительство Судана выделило 400 млн суданских баксов на Secondary and higher education нужды образования и взяло на себя обязательство удвоить экономные средства в этом случае, если существовшая тогда система образования будет реформирована, начнет удовлетворять требованиям времени и суданского общества.

Трудности развития образования в Индии

До 1976 сфера образования находилась в ведении штатов, в то время как центральное правительство координировало и определяло эталоны Secondary and higher education специального и высшего образования. В 1976 году в согласовании поправкой Конституции, правительства разделили ответственность за данную область. С сих пор решения по определению структуры образования принимаются штатами. Качество и эталоны образования определяет центральное правительство. В согласовании с Государственной политикой в сфере образования к 21 веку непременное бесплатное образование достойного уровня должны получить все малыши Secondary and higher education в возрасте до 14 лет. В итоге усилий центрального правительства и правительств штатов сейчас фактически в каждом населённом пт в сельских районах имеются школы исходного и среднего образования. Таким макаром, с момента обретения независимости приём деток в возрасте от 6 до 14 лет в школы исходного и среднего образования возрос до 87 и Secondary and higher education 50% соответственно. В период с 1950 по 1997 гг. количество этих школ возросло с 223 тыс. до 775 тыс., в то время как число учителей в их за тот же период возросло с 624 тыс. до 3,84 млн. Существенно возросло и число обучающихся в школе девченок. Правительство Индии направляет повышенное внимание на повышение роли Secondary and higher education родителей, также на улучшение школьной программки и процесса обучения в целом. Центральное правительство вполне покрывает расходы на учебные, методические пособия и выплачивает заработной платы учителям в период деяния плана. Строительство школ является ответственностью штатов. В рамках программки подготовки учителей в каждом районе было решено открыть образовательно-подготовительный институт с целью Secondary and higher education обеспечить академическую поддержку учителям исходных классов и педагогам для взрослых и неформальных образовательных учреждений.

ADDITIONAL TEXTS

Education in Vietnam

With one of the highest GDP growths rates in Asia, Vietnam is currently trying to overhaul its education system, with a view to preparing students for the increasing role of English as the Secondary and higher education language of business and the importance of internationalising the education system to train a workforce equipped to maintain the rapid economy growth of the last two decades. Education in Vietnam is divided into five levels: pre-primary, primary, intermediate, secondary, and higher education. Formal education consists Secondary and higher education of twelve years of basic education. Basic education consists of five years of primary education, four years of intermediate education, and three years of secondary education. The majority of basic education students are enrolled on a half-day basis. Public kindergartens usually admit children ranging from 18 months to 5 years Secondary and higher education of age. This level of education tends to be popular in major cities such as Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Da Nang, Hai Phong, Can Tho and Vung Tau. Children normally start primary education at the age of six. Education at this level lasts for 5 years and is compulsory for all children Secondary and higher education. The country's literacy rate is over 90%.

Junior high school includes sixth, seventh, eighth and ninth grade. Until its abolition in 2006, students had to pass the Intermediate Graduation Examination (IGE) presented by the local Department of Education and Training to graduate. This educational level is homogeneous Secondary and higher education throughout most of the country, except in very remote provinces, which expect to popularize and standardize middle education within the next few years. Intermediate education is not compulsory in Vietnam. Secondary education consists of grades ten through to twelve. The IGE is a prerequisite entrance examination for secondary schooling. The IGE Secondary and higher education score determines the schools at which students are able to enroll. The higher the score, the more prestigious the school. Students are not free to choose what they study. To graduate, students must pass 11 obligatory courses.

At the start of secondary school, students can enroll in Specialist Classes if Secondary and higher education their grades from the previous year are good enough. These students specialize in a particular subject; this can be any of the obligatory subjects, except Technology, Physical Education and Civics. Students enrolled in these programs have a heavier workload than regular secondary school students. The workload varies from school to Secondary and higher education school, but grade 11 students are generally expected to study grade 12 courses concurrently. Other courses include university-level courses. Some schools go as far as requiring their students to finish secondary school by the end of grade 10. Only prestigious schools offer these classes, and they have yet to be Secondary and higher education standardized

All students in Vietnam are required to take the national Leaving Examination at the end of grade 12 to get a diploma. The Leaving Examination is administered by the Ministry of Education and Training. Students still have to pass their regular end-of-term examinations along with passing Secondary and higher education the Leaving Examination. The Leaving Examination includes six subjects: mathematics, Vietnamese literature, foreign language and three others determined by the Ministry of Education and Training. Students usually sit for The Leaving Examination in late May or early June.

Education in Iran

Education in Iran is highly centralized and is divided to K-12 education Secondary and higher education and higher education. K-12 education is supervised by the Ministry of Education and higher education is under supervision of Ministry of Science and Technology.

The Fourth Five-Year Development Plan (2005-2010) envisages upgrading the quality of the educational system at all levels, as well as reforming education curricula, and Secondary and higher education developing appropriate programs of vocational training, a continuation of the trend towards labor market oriented education and training. There are both free public schools and private schools in Iran at all levels, from elementary school through university. Education in Iran is highly centralized. The Ministry of Education is in Secondary and higher education charge of educational planning, financing, administration, curriculum, and textbook development. Teacher training, grading, and examinations are also the responsibility of the Ministry. At the university level, however, every student attending public schools is required to commit to serve the government for a number of years typically equivalent to those Secondary and higher education spent at the university, or pay it off for a very low price (typically a few hundred dollars). During the early 1970s, efforts were мейд to improve the educational system by updating school curriculation, introducing modern textbooks, and training more efficient teachers.

Primary school (Dabestan) starts at the age of Secondary and higher education 6 for a duration of 5 years. Middle school, also known as orientation cycle (Rahnamayi), goes from the sixth to the eighth grade. High school (Dabirestan), for which the last three years is not mandatory, is divided between theoretical, vocational/technical and manual, each program with its own specialties Secondary and higher education. Teacher Training Centers in Iran are responsible for training teachers for primary, orientation cycle, and gifted children’s schools. These centers offer two-year programs leading to a Fogh-Diploma (associate degree). Students that enter Teacher Training Centers, have at minimum, completed the orientation cycle of education; most have Secondary and higher education a High school diploma. A national entrance examination is required for admission.

Universities, institutes of technology, medical schools and community colleges, provide the higher education. The requirement to enter into higher education is to have a High school diploma, and finally pass the national University entrance's exam (Konkoor Secondary and higher education). Higher education is sanctioned by different levels of diplomas: Fogh-e-Diplom or Kārdāni after 2 years of higher education, Kārshenāsi (also known under the name “licence”) is delivered after 4 years of higher education (Bachelor's degree). Kārshenāsi-ye Arshad is delivered after 2 more years of study (Master's Secondary and higher education degree), after which another exam allows the candidate to pursue a doctoral program (PhD).

Iranian universities churn out almost 750,000 skilled graduates annually. The tradition of university education in Iran goes back to the early centuries of Islam. By the 20th century, however, the system had become antiquated and was remodeled along French Secondary and higher education lines. The country's 16 universities were closed after the 1979 revolution and were then reopened gradually between 1982 and 1983 under Islamic supervision.

While the universities were closed, the Cultural Revolution Committee investigated professors and teachers and dismissed those who were believers in Marxism, liberalism, and other "imperialistic" ideologies. The Secondary and higher education universities reopened with Islamic curricula. In 1997, all higher-level institutions had 40,477 teachers and enrolled 579,070 students. The University of Tehran (founded in 1934) has 10 faculties, including a department of Islamic theology. Other major universities are at Tabriz, Mashhad, Ahvaz, Shiraz, Esfahan, Kerman, Babol Sar, Rasht, and Orumiyeh. There are about Secondary and higher education 50 colleges and 40 technological institutes.

In order to teach 9-12 grades, in theory, a bachelor’s degree is required; however due to a shortage of teachers in Iran, schools have been compelled to use teaching staff with other educational backgrounds. Teachers are trained in universities and higher institutes. There are seven Secondary and higher education teacher-training colleges in Iran.

Education in Japan

Formal education in Japan began with the adoption of Chinese culture in the 6th century. Buddhist and Confucian teachings as well as sciences, calligraphy, divination and literature were taught at the courts of Asuka, Nara and Heian. Scholar officials were chosen through an Imperial Secondary and higher education examination system. But contrary to China, the system never fully took hold and titles and posts at the court remained hereditary family possessions. The rise of the bushi, the military class, during the Kamakura period ended the influence of scholar officials, but Buddhist monasteries remained influential centers of Secondary and higher education learningIn the Edo period, the Yushima Seidō in Edo was the chief educational institution of the state; and at its head was the Daigaku-no-kami, a title which identified the leader of the Tokugawa training school for shogunate bureaucrats.

Under the Tokugawa shogunate, the daimyō vied for power Secondary and higher education in the largely pacified country. Since their influence could not be raised through war, they competed on the economic field. Their warrior-turned-bureaucrat Samurai elite had to be educated not only in military strategy and the martial arts, but also agriculture and accounting. Likewise, the wealthy merchant Secondary and higher education class needed education for their daily business, and their wealth allowed them to be patrons of arts and science. But temple schools (terakoya) educated peasants too, and it is estimated that at the end of the Edo period 50% of the male and 20% of the female population possessed some degree of literacy. Even Secondary and higher education though contact with foreign countries was restricted, books from China and Europe were eagerly imported and Rangaku ("Dutch studies") became a popular area of scholarly interest.

After the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the methods and structures of Western learning were adopted as a means to make Japan a Secondary and higher education strong, modern nation. Students and even high-ranking government officials were sent abroad to study, such as the Iwakura mission. Foreign scholars, the so-called o-yatoi gaikokujin, were invited to teach at newly founded universities and military academies. Compulsory education was introduced, mainly after the Prussian model Secondary and higher education. By 1890, only 20 years after the resumption of full international relations, Japan discontinued employment of the foreign consultants.

The rise of militarism led to the use of the education system to prepare the nation for war. The military even sent its own instructors to schools. After the defeat in World War II, the Secondary and higher education allied occupation government set an education reform as one of its primary goals, to eradicate militarist teachings and "democratize" Japan. The education system was rebuilt after the American model.

The end of the 1960s were a time of student protests around the world, and also in Secondary and higher education Japan. The main subject of protest was the Japan-U.S. security treaty. A number of reforms were carried out in the post-war period until today. They aimed at easing the burden of entrance examinations, promoting internationalization and information technologies, diversifying education and supporting lifelong learning.

In successive international tests of Secondary and higher education mathematics, Japanese children consistently rank at or near the top. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) is

responsible for educational administration.

In the present-day Japan, education is compulsory at the elementary and lower secondary levels. Virtually all students progress to the upper secondary level Secondary and higher education, which is voluntary. Most students attend public schools through the lower secondary level, but private education is popular at the upper secondary and university levels. Japan's education system played a central part in Japan's recovery and rapid economic growth in the decades following the end Secondary and higher education of World War II.

After World War II, the Fundamental Law of Education and the School Education Law were enacted in 1947 under the direction of the occupation forces. The latter law defined the school system that is still in effect today: six years of elementary school, three years of junior high Secondary and higher education school, three years of high school, two or four years of university.

Education prior to elementary school is provided at kindergartens and day-care centers. Public and private day-care centers take children from under age one on up to five years old. The programmes for those children Secondary and higher education ages 3–5 resembles those at kindergartens. The educational approach at kindergartens varies greatly from unstructured environments that emphasize play to highly structured environments that are focused on having the child pass the entrance exam at a private elementary school.


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